Saffron plant called “Crocusstairs” belongs to the “Iridaceae” family, which is mostly cultivated in Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
Saffron is a half tropical plant and grows in areas with mild winters and hot, dry summers.
plant is resistant to cold, but it needs a relatively mild climate in winter because its main growth season is in autumn, winter and spring.
Sunny and treeless lands are suitable for saffron growth.
The maximum tolerable temperature of this plant is between 35 and 40 degrees Celsius and it has the best growth at an altitude of 1300 to 2300 meters above sea level.
This plant is a perennial plant with a brown calyx bulb.
This plant has stem (pedicel) and 6 purple petals and 3 strands of red stigma.
Saffron stigma is the main and used part of saffron that has many minerals, fats and mucilage.
the presence of a substance called crocin in saffron is the cause of its red color.
The presence of safranal and other substances and essential oils has given saffron this good aroma and color. the presence of a substance called picrocrocin is the cause of the bitter taste of it.
The saffron plant leaves are sharp and are about 1 to 4 cm in size.
The stigma and a small part of Style is the usable parts of saffron. The higher amount of stigma and the less Style, the higher value of saffron.
In summer, when is the dormant of the plant, rain is harmful for it.
The plant growth cycle begins in early October and lasts until early May; In May \, it goes to spring and summer sleep, during which irrigation or rainwater is harmful for the plant.
Saffron is a low-expected plant.
does not need to replace its pot or bulb for 5 to 6 years after planting.
suitable situation for saffron plant to grow:
since saffron bulb stays on the ground for 5 to 6 years, the soil should be light or a combination of sand and clay to resist the plant against external factors.
For a better saffron bulb growth, the land should be fertile, well drained and treeless, sunny and it also should contain some sand and clay too.
We irrigations saffron preferred in spring and autumn and if the cultivation environment is not snowy in the winter you can continue watering a little in the winter too.
Water should not reach the plant in summer and in general, saffron does not need much water.
Whenever you plant the saffron bulb, watering should be postponed to October.
One or two large irrigations are required 10 days apart in October (10 days after planting bulbs in October should be irrigated).
This plant does not like fertilization very much and stores its required energy in its thick and fleshy roots.
You can add saffron fertilizer to the plant in autumn, providing it is weak.
Saffron plant temperature and light:
In general, the higher temperature and light for the plant, the higher growth of it and its buds.
so plant should be planted in a sunny land.
Every few years, take out the bulbs from the soil and propagate by separating and replanting the young and new bulbs.
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