All about saffron:
95% of the world’s saffron (red gold) is produced and exported in Iran.
Saffron with amazing properties is naturally found in the northeast of Iran with ideal geographical and subtropical climatic conditions, which has mild winters and hot and dry summers.
Saffron is a valuable spice with the scientific name of crocus from the Lily’s family.
The best time to plant saffron is in May and June, and the warmer the weather, the more bulb are damaged.
Irrigation is required only at the time of planting and once a few days before harvest.
Saffron requires less irrigation and care than other plants and does not need to be replanted until 7 years after planting bulbs.
The harvest time of saffron is in October and mid-November, and certainly the time of planting and harvesting and the method of cleaning saffron is important in its price and quality.
For example, saffron that dries and is cleaned quickly after harvest is more suitable for export. (saffron good for export)
Saffron is one of the spices that has been known for its color, taste and medicinal properties since ancient times.
The spice is also grown in southern Europe and is now grown in many countries around the world, including Spain, Italy, Turkey, Greece, India and Kashmir.
75,000 saffron blossoms are needed to produce one kilogram of saffron spice.
Saffron is usually harvested by hand, and due to the difficulty of planting and harvesting, it has become one of the most expensive spices.
Good saffron production requires cold and dry weather conditions with fertile soil and irrigation facilities and sufficient rainfall.
Saffron flowers are harvested in the early hours of the morning as they soon destroy.
Saffron includes picrocrocin and safranal compounds. It also contains chemical compounds called crocin, which makes the color of saffron golden and yellow.
picrocrocin and saffronal make the taste and aroma of saffron special.
Saffron is a small plant with a height of 10 to 30 cm, which is perennial.
A number of narrow leaves emerge from the middle of the stem or bulb, and a flowering stem emerges from the middle of the leaves, leading to one to three flowers.
The flowers have 6 purple petals. The flowers have 3 flags and a female.
The part used by saffron plant is the end of the flag and the 3 branches of the carpel, which is known as saffron.
Saffron consists of 3 carpels of flower branches (red part) which is the most important commercial part and flag (white or yellow part).
In saffron, 70 to 75 percent of the roots should be red and 25 to 30 percent of the roots should be white.
Types of saffron
The most important types of saffron are Negin, Sargol and Pushal.
In terms of flag size, it is similar to common pushal saffron, but it is thicker than pushal.
It has high coloring power and fragrance and is great in terms of volume and beauty.
negin saffron is the most expensive of its kind.
This type of saffron contains pure carpel without flags.
In Sargol saffron, its white part is separated by scissors or electricity, and saffron is all red.
The pushal is prepared in such a way that the red part of the saffron is separated from the flower along with a little white part (flower).
Saffron has many uses in the pharmaceutical industry, for example, it is used as a sedative, to treat stomach pain, asthma and to relieve Scraggly of hair.
In the perfume industry, saffron is used to produce aromatic substances, fragrances and essential oils in cosmetics and hygienic.
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